In January, 2013, I wrote an article entitled, “Psychiatric Drugs, School Violence, And The Big Pharma Cover-up,” where I discussed the importance of the CYP450 enzymes on the metabolism of pharmaceutical drugs and the potential for adverse effects of those drugs if the CYP450 enzyme was not functioning properly.
Studies conducted over the last decade have clearly demonstrated the link between adverse reactions to Psycho-Pharmaceutical medications and underactive or underperforming CYP450 enzymes. This has caused some to wonder whether or not the recent uptick in mass shootings and the obvious link to many of the perpetrators and prescription drugs could be related to the performance of the CYP450 enzymes. Additional research, however, is now causing more questions to be asked in reference to the connections that chemicals like Glyphosate may have in the inhibition of proper CYP450 performance and, thus, in the uptick in mass shootings.
For those unfamiliar with the functions of the CYP450 enzymes, CYP450 stands for the Cytochrome P450 enzymes. Scientists understand these enzymes to be responsible for metabolizing almost half of all drugs currently on the market. P450 gene variants (polymorphisms) are implicated in the variability in drug response among a wide range of individuals.
These polymorphisms, which are essentially structural changes in the human DNA, might hold the key as to why some individuals do not respond to high doses of medication and why other individuals may have toxic or adverse effects to the same medication at very low doses. As the Mayo clinic Communique, Cytochrome P450 Enzyme Genotyping: Optimizing Patient Care Through Pharmacogenetics explains:
The CYP450 enzymes are a group of at least 57 different proteins that are each coded by a different gene. The CYP450 enzymes, also known as mixed function monooxygenases, are located in the microsomes of the endoplasmic reticulum in many cell types including the liver, small intestine, kidney, lung, brain, and skin. In mammals, the CYP450 enzymes are the primary catalysts for detoxification reactions that render water-insoluble molecules sufficiently water soluble to be excreted in the urine . . . Drugs, hormones, toxins, carcinogens, mutagens, environmental pollutants, and other xenobiotics are metabolized by CYP450 enzymes.
Of the CYP450 enzyme family, there are other more specific enzymes such as CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2D6, etc. These three enzymes specifically are responsible for approximately 40% of all CYP450-mediated drug metabolism. The CYP2D6 enzyme itself is responsible for the bulk of drug metabolism at around 20% to 30% of drug metabolism in the CYP450 family.
Again, referring to the Mayo clinic Communique:
The CYP2D6 enzyme is the most extensively characterized polymorphic drug-metabolizing enzyme. It is responsible for hydroxylation or dealkylation of over 100 commonly prescribed drugs such as alpha-blockers, analgesics, anticonvulsants, antidepressants, antiemetics, antihypertensives, antiestrogens, antineoplastics, antipsyhotics, antiretrovirals, antitussives, beta- and andrenoceptor blockers, cardioactive drugs, H1 blockers, opioids, stimulants and sympathomimetics.
Highly variable, with more than 160 variants identified to date, the CYP2D6 gene is located on chromosome 22, where crossover events lead to duplication of this gene.In relation to the CYP2D6 enzyme, there are four classifications – Extensive Metabolizers (EM), Poor Metabolizers (PM), Intermediate Metabolizers (IM), and Ultrarapid Metabolizers (UM).
EM (Extensive Metabolizers) are considered the “normal genotype,” “which is free of inactivating polymorphisms, deletions, or duplications.” PM (Poor Metabolizers) are individuals who have “deficient” enzyme function in terms of CYP450 metabolic processes and, subsequently, have difficulty clearing certain medications. IM (Intermediate Metabolizers) are those who have some functioning CYP450 enzymes but are subject to loss of the function of these enzymes after the “second hit” of medication, thus turning them into PM. UM (Ultrarapid Metabolizers) are those who metabolize the drug so rapidly that it clears so quickly that there is little or none of the desired effect. In medications that required metabolism to activate, however, UM individuals may produce the metabolite may be produced too quickly, resulting in toxicity and the realization of side effects.
While there are potentially adverse health effects with any one of the four classifications, the focus of this article is on those who are generally PM (Poor Metabolizers). This is because these individuals have a higher chance of experiencing adverse health effects of pharmaceuticals than those with “normal” functioning EMCYP2D6 enzymes.
Of course “normal” and “deficient” are misnomers because all of these genotype categories are normal and none are truly deficient. They are only deficient in the context of pharmaceutical medication.
While this information might seem new to the general public who have been subjected to years and years of steady propaganda from the mental health and pharmaceutical industries suggesting that medication is the answer for every uncomfortable and natural human feeling or response, the fact is that these industries, as well as numerous scientists, have known about it for some time.
The connection to CYP450 enzymes and the adverse effects of psycho-pharmaceuticals has been documented in many different scientific studies. It has been demonstrated for some time that those individuals with no or poorly performing CYP450 enzymes are much more likely to suffer the side effects of antipsychotic and/or antidepressant medication. This much was explained in Yolande Lucire’s study, “Antidepressant-induced akasthisia-related homicides associated with diminishing mutations in metabolizing genes of the CYP450 family.” (Source)
Recently published by Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine, the purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between three of the enzymes of the CYP450 family (CYP2D6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19), akasthisia, drugs (legal, illegal, prescription, and non-prescription), violence, and the diminishing mutations in the metabolizing genes. The researchers utilized their access to individuals who were diagnosed with akathisia/serotonin toxicity related to their consumption of psychiatric medications. Out of this test population, many had a history of violence and suicidal ideation; some had even committed homicide as a result.
The results of the study pointed to a clear correlation between “deficient” CYP450 enzyme activity and the experience of adverse side effects, including but not limited to: serious violence, homicide, and suicide. Indeed, the researchers concluded that “prescribing antidepressants without knowing about CYP450 genotypes is like giving blood transfusions without matching for ABO groups.”
It is important to note, however, that Big Pharma has been aware of these connections for some time, yet they, along with the mental health and medical establishments have continued to push psychiatric medications at an ever increasing rate. The Lucire researchers comment on this very aspect when discussing the results of the study. They write:
In the cases presented in this paper, concerning subjects with abnormal CYP450 metabolism (ie, ultrarapid and/or diminished), the antidepressant or its metabolites may have reached a toxic level in hours or days correlating with onset of intense dysphoria and akasthisia. The symptoms of toxicity were not recognized, or were ignored by patient and/or treating doctor and, in many cases, the dose of the antidepressant was increased while various “antidotes” to side effects, like sleeping pills, nausea, and pain medications, were added. They were prescribed by clinicians educated by drug company representatives, available information, and key opinion leaders who receive substantial benefits from the makers of these drugs, an issue that is coming to light with whistleblower (qui tam) cases taken by attorneys, state and federal, against the makers for fraudulent promotion. Healy (2006) has documented the details of these fraudulent promotions, but they remain outside the purview of regulatory agencies who approve, even subsidise, drugs and sanction ghost-written product information concerning their use.This has stunning implications regarding many of the irrational acts of violence seen in modern society by individuals who were “in the system” at one time or another. Specifically, the number of school shootings in the United States and the numerous cases of children killing their parents or parents killing their children, as well as other relatively irrational and, quite frankly, strange acts of violence.
Likewise, these findings also have dramatic implications for the increase in suicide.
It is well-known that the overwhelming majority of school shooters have been on antidepressants or other psychiatric medications before and during their rampages. So have a great deal of those who have committed suicide.
These facts and findings raise the question that many learned individuals have been posing for some time: Are the pharmaceutical companies liable for the increase in violence, suicide, and psychological damage among many members of the general population who have consumed their product?
If the makers of the drugs knew that those lacking “adequate” CYP450 enzyme function would be susceptible to serious side effects such as those mentioned above, then it would necessarily follow that they would be guilty of “Failure to warn.”
While some side effects (but certainly not all) are mentioned on the labels, in medical dictionaries, and “educational” material, nowhere is it mentioned that someone lacking the corresponding CYP450 family enzymes might be at higher risk for experiencing these side effects.
Indeed, the question of “Failure to warn” on the part of the pharmaceutical companies has already arisen in court. Litigation has already been brought against these corporations -- specifically Eli Lilly -- alleging that the corporation is guilty of “Failure to warn” in regards to the side effects of Prozac. In 2002, a lawsuit was brought against Eli Lilly alleging that the company had “failed to publicize research showing some people are 'poor metabolizers of Prozac' and a test can reveal if a patient might be affected.”
If these cases are successful, and if they are allowed to continue, it is not likely that they will stop with the Big Pharma corporations. Hospitals, medical practices, psychiatrists, and doctors are all likely to suffer the harvest of the seeds sown by the pharmaceutical companies. As Eileen Danneman of Vaccine Liberation Army writes:
An ‘inadvertent’ induction of TSBP or ISS by a psychiatrist can no longer serve as a credible or legal excuse for iatrogenic harm to the patient and safety risk to the public at large considering the wealth of research, science-based evidence and clinical reports since the mapping of genes and the identification of GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS OF CYTOCHROME P450 (CYP) 2D6 and other alleles since the 1980s. . .
Soon Hospitals and Psychiatrists will join the ranks of failed defendants, as medical malpractice attorneys become educated in the subject of gene testing and psychiatry, thereby opening up channels for multiple level litigations. Due to the ever expanding field of pharmacogentics, and the ever increasing inclusion of information on Cytochrome P450 in manufacturers’ package inserts, (specifically information on 2D6) there is no question that psychiatric directors of hospitals, mental health clinic directors and psychiatrists in general have working knowledge and have, indeed, had sufficient knowledge of genetic polymorphism of Cytochrome P450 2D6 and other alleles for the past 10-15 years. Clearly disregarding this knowledge, psychiatrists have ‘failed to warn’ their patients putting them in harms way and the public at great risk. (Source)Indeed, the connection between CYP450 enzymes and the increased risk of drug side effects is relatively well-known amongst practicing psychiatrists already. Please see the following links:
The information is even known and addressed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
This writer personally asked some within the profession as to the relationship between CYP450 enzymes and increased potential for side effects and was surprised to see the level of knowledge was such that the general response was that no one should be prescribed these specific types of medication without adequate testing to determine their risk potential. Certainly, this level of knowledge may not be representative of the general population of psychiatrists as no scientific poll was taken, yet it does show that this knowledge has been circulating amongst those practicing psychiatry today.
Obviously, any pharmaceutical corporation that has knowingly withheld evidence or research that may point toward a relationship between P450 enzymes and drug side effects should be subject to both prosecution and litigation. Indeed, there is virtually no doubt that they have done just that.
Yet there is another aspect to the strange uptick in school shootings that might possibly be related not only to the CYP450 enzymes and adverse reactions to Psycho-Pharmaceutical medications, but also to major corporations like Monsanto.
This is because of the preponderance of chemicals like Glyphosate and its proven effects on the CYP450 enzyme performance. Glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide in the United States and the rest of the world. Its uses are largely focused in the agricultural sectors - particularly by Big-Agra operations - and in the production of various Genetically Modified foods which have been engineered to resist its effects.
Glyphosate, besides an environmental toxin, is also well known to be toxic to humans and mammals in general. More importantly to this discussion, however, is the fact that Glyphosate also acts as a CYP450 enzyme disruptor.
For instance, in a study entitled “Glyphosate’s Suppression of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes and Amino Acid Biosynthesis by the Gut Microbiome: Pathways to Modern Diseases,” and published in the scientific journal Entropy on April 18, 2013, authors Samsel and Seneff write:
Glyphosate, the active ingredient in Roundup®, is the most popular herbicide used worldwide. The industry asserts it is minimally toxic to humans, but here we argue otherwise. Residues are found in the main foods of the Western diet, comprised primarily of sugar, corn, soy and wheat. Glyphosate's inhibition of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes is an overlooked component of its toxicity to mammals. CYP enzymes play crucial roles in biology, one of which is to detoxify xenobiotics. Thus, glyphosate enhances the damaging effects of other food borne chemical residues and environmental toxins. Negative impact on the body is insidious and manifests slowly over time as inflammation damages cellular systems throughout the body. Here, we show how interference with CYP enzymes acts synergistically with disruption of the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids by gut bacteria, as well as impairment in serum sulfate transport. Consequences are most of the diseases and conditions associated with a Western diet, which include gastrointestinal disorders, obesity, diabetes, heart disease, depression, autism, infertility, cancer and Alzheimer’s disease. We explain the documented effects of glyphosate and its ability to induce disease, and we show that glyphosate is the “textbook example” of exogenous semiotic entropy: the disruption of homeostasis by environmental toxins. [emphasis added]The authors also write,
Glyphosate from food sources or as a contaminant in water would be likely to reach the liver in high concentrations through direct transport from the digestive system via the hepatic portal vein. It could be anticipated that glyphosate would disrupt many of the diverse CYP enzymes that are bioactive in the liver, involved in cholesterol synthesis and metabolism, vitamin D3 synthesis and metabolism, the detoxification of xenobiotics, and regulation of retinoic acid. Glyphosate would also be expected to travel throughout the blood stream, disrupting any CYP enzymes it comes in contact with. [emphasis added]Consider also the study entitled “Differential Effects of Glyphosate and Roundup on Human Placental Cells and Aromatase” and published in Environmental Health Perspectives which found that
glyphosate acts as a disruptor of mammalian cytochrome P450 aromatase activity from concentrations 100 times lower than the recommended use in agriculture; this is noticeable on human placental cells after only 18 hr, and it can also affect aromatase gene expression. It also partially disrupts the ubiquitous reductase activity but at higher concentrations. Its effects are allowed and amplified by at least 0.02% of the adjuvants present in Roundup, known to facilitate cell penetration, and this should be carefully taken into account in pesticide evaluation. The dilution of glyphosate in Roundup formulation may multiply its endocrine effect. Roundup may be thus considered as a potential endocrine disruptor. Moreover, at higher doses still below the classical agricultural dilutions, its toxicity on placental cells could induce some reproduction problems.Yet, while the inhibition of CYP450 enzymes are an overlooked danger of Glyphosate, the increased propensity toward adverse effects of psycho-pharmaceutical drugs is an even more drastically underpublicized effect of the herbicide. Remember, as stated earlier in this article, it is well-known that that the disruption of CYP450 enzymes can lead directly to adverse effects of pharmaceuticals.
With this in mind, it is also important to note that, according to the Richard, Moslemi, et al. study, Glyphosate, the active ingredient in Monsanto’s Roundup, is capable of disrupting CYP450 enzymes at concentrations 100 times lower than that which is recommended for agricultural uses.
This is extremely concerning because, in 2014, the majority of the American food supply is treated with Roundup (Glyphosate) at some point during growing season. In 2010, the New York Times reported that “90 percent of the soybeans and 70 percent of the corn and cotton grown in the United States” are “Roundup Ready” crops, meaning that the crops have been Genetically Engineered to resist the herbicidal effects of Glyphosate. This also indicates the same percentage of these particular crops are sprayed with Roundup during the production process.
In fact, Roundup has been used so much that weeds have adapted themselves to the chemical and are becoming more and more resistant to its effects, thus requiring the use of more Roundup to achieve its intended effects.
With all of this information taken together, it thus justified to ask whether or not the preponderance of Glyphosate in the American food supply might be contributing to a vast increase in the occurrence of adverse effects of pharmaceuticals and pyscho-pharmaceuticals and, as a result, an increase in mass shootings and otherwise violent behavior.
In the end, Monsanto and companies like it should be held responsible for the environmental degradation they have caused over decades of predatory and greedy business practices. Monsanto should be help responsible for all of its corrupt lobbying efforts and bribing of public officials. It should be held responsible for the countless health effects caused by both its chemical products and its toxic tasteless food products. The relentless use and promotion of Glyphosate should be no exception.
With Monsanto’s global reputation, the possibility that the overuse of Glyphosate is contributing to an increase in adverse effects of medication and violent acts should seem far-fetched to no one." Go to: http://www.activistpost.com/2014/07/is-monsanto-contributing-to-rise-in.html