Permaculture co-originator David Holmgren’s writes
"There are a number of methods of moon planting, some are complex taking into account far off constellations – something that I find difficult to comprehend*. There is an approach that I’ve found I can get my head around. Linking the ebb and flow of the sap in tune with the rhythms of the moon.
In a waxing moon, when light increases towards a full moon, sap flow is drawn up. This is the most suitable time for sowing and transplanting flowering annuals, biennials, grains and melons. Basically any short lived plant that we want to harvest its leaves, seed, flowers or fruits.
It’s also a good time for applying liquid fertilisers, pruning and grafting as increased sap flow produces new growth more quickly."..
.."With a waning moon, when the light is decreasing as the moon changes from a full to a new moon, the sap flow is drawn down. This focusses the energy towards the roots, which is more suited to root crops and perennials, plants that live longer than two years.
It’s also a good time for applying solid fertilisers, pruning dormant plants and harvesting, as there is less likelihood of rotting.
This general pattern can be divided further into the quarterly moon cycles.
The new moon phase (from new moon to first quarter) is most suited to sowing or transplanting leafy annuals, where we value or eat the leaves or stem. Plants like lettuce, spinach, cabbage and celery.
The first quarter phase is most suited to fruiting annuals (not fruit trees) where we value or eat the fruit or seed bearing part of the plant. Like tomatoes, pumpkins, broccoli and beans.
The full moon phase (from full moon to the third quarter) is most suited to sowing or planting out root crops as well as decorative or fruiting perennials. Like apples, potatoes asparagus and rhubarb. It’s also a good time for taking cuttings and dividing plants.
The last quarter phase is a time to avoid planting and focus on improving the soil, by weeding, mulching, making compost and manure teas as well as digging or ploughing.
The one caveat for this method is that 12 hours before and after the transition time from one phase to the next is when sowing, planting and pruning is best avoided. Use this time instead to improve your soil.
This method of moon planting is illustrated with daily icons and moon phase times in the 2015 Permaculture Calendar, permacultureprinciples.com
" Go to: https://permaculturenews.org/2015/01/26/moon-planting-guide/
*An attitude that has proved a considerable obstacle to a full and proper understanding of what I prefer to call, "Brythonic Astrology" and one that does no credit to any who display it (who are, unfortunately, "legion"), quote; "Our islands were colonised by a Roman state the legacy of whose empire building is still with us today, our hallowed academic institutions continually turn out graduates who loudly proclaim the greatness of the classical world (especially and unfortunately Rome), and deride the former culture of our islands even to the extent of describing our magnificent forebears as living in, quote; "wooden-huts" (whilst this may be partially true such is a deliberate attempt to denigrate Brythonic culture and to represent our ancestors as "square-wheel-making" imbeciles for there are many achievements of the ancient Britons which mark them out as remarkable innovators who left us with a legacy that the technocratic culture of today still has little appreciation for nor any grasp of its true global significance -and let us not forget that we had forests the like of which the classical world did not-)"
Go to: http://www.arafel.co.uk/2018/09/a-council-of-britons-peoplesvote-brexit.html
The Uffington, "Dragon"?
In either the; "Beth-Luis-Nion" or (depending on who your read and/or -what might be best described as-, one's, "philosophical bent"), "Beth-Luis-Fearn", "thirteen-sign" lunar tree calendars, use of which is I believe rightly ascribed to the; Mesolithic, Neolithic, bronze and iron-age cultures of these isles, there are four, "solar sabbats"; the Winter Solstice, the Spring Equinox, the Summer Solstice and the Autumn Equinox and four, "lunar sabbats"; "Imbolc" the, "early spring quickening", "Beltayne" the, "consummation of high-spring", "Lammas" the, "harvest moon" celebration and "Samhain" the, "end of year" preparation for the time of darkness that precedes the, "return of the light" at the Winter Solstice. A calendar based on thirteen moons a year leaves nine, what are known as, "working moons". Resolution between the variant solar and lunar cycles was achieved by some clever mathematics (not all of which is extant neither do I claim to fully understand all of that which is), facilitated by the, "geo-metry" (earth - measurement), of various sacred sites (specifically in the case of the resolution of the two cycles the; "Rollright Stones" in Oxfordshire).
A breakdown of the method of resolving the solar and lunar cycles can be found in a book by James Vogh (aka, John Sladek RIP), called; "The Thirteenth Sign", currently out of print but still available as a second hand original, go to: https://biblio.co.uk/9780246109316, this book is oft dismissed as a hoax, however, it is no such thing, John Sladek was a good friend of radical science fiction writer Michael Moorcock and the work neatly dovetails into the thirteen sign, "tree lore" detailed by other writers such as Robert Graves, quote;
"Systems (or more accurately interpretations), differ, I still recommend James Vogh's (aka. John Sladek R.I.P), book, "The Thirteenth Sign" (even though out of print), for a useful introduction not only to the tree calendar but also the resolution achieved between the lunar and solar years by The, "Ancient" Bri(e)tons.
"Imbolc" the first of this years lunar sabbats falls, "late" this year at twelve midnight (23.54 hrs), on St.Valentines' day (the full moon -should a full moon occur before twelve noon it is celebrated on the preceding night as the "witches'" day is said to fall between twelve noon and twelve noon-). The, "Beth-Luis-Nion" calendar referred to above does not celebrate the new year until after, "the return of the light" even though the, "old year" ends at Samhain, the intervening period being a time of reflection (and possibly also fasting), in The, "Brythonic" Faith as they awaited the return of the life giving forces of the Sun. Other festivals such as, "Beltayne" were celebrations of fertility for the Britons, one reason being that one would attempt to ensure that one did not conceive a child who would be, "born into the dark", during the harvest or at any other time which would make their birthing, post-natal and infant care inconvenient, difficult or dangerous, for this reason many Britons were (and still are), born during the middle of February (I am myself), possibly as an, "Ash" (although as the lunar months fluctuate so do the periods over which the trees hold dominion).
Imbolc being the first of the four lunar sabbats is a celebration of Brygid (or "bride"), "The Maiden" who with, "The Mother" and, "The Crone" make up the three living aspects of, "The Triple Goddess", "Arianrhod" ("Arian" = silver "Rhod" = wheel hence; "Goddess of The Silver Wheel" -the cycle of the moon-, in both ancient and modern, "Bri(e)ton"), whose consort is Kernunnos ("The Horned One" who is; "lord of the trees")." Go to: http://www.arafel.co.uk/2014/02/beth-luis-fearn-brethonic-tree-calendar.html
One will see from the post quoted that each tree is ascribed attributes, or, "vibrations", which characterise both it and the influence that cosmic forces such as; the sun. moon, planets and constellations et.al. have at certain times of the year. It must be remembered that concentration on astrology developed as the agricultural revolution of mankind progressed, being without the, so-called, "aid" of chemicals and machines cultures across the planet concentrated on finding ways to bring their agricultural activities into greater and greater harmony with the natural world, both discovering heuristically and by the experimental application of theory based on observation that by identifying the times when certain energies were favourable to; germination, propagation, transplantation, breeding and harvesting et.al one could maximise yields, minimise disease and pests and ensure the biodiversity that is the engine of sustainability.
Nb. It is instructive to note that when hubris based on the success of utilising (some of), the methodologies suggested reached its zenith (and the original notion of, "harmonic relationship" had been lost -the culture concerned having become static and not continued with the undoubtedly hard work of exploring their, "dynamic environmental relationship"-), the, "conglomerations of peoples", known as, "civilisations"*, which profited from such activities all suffered catastrophic declines or, "falls" (which manifested themselves in a number of ways but which all had their roots in a, "rot within" that exemplified the corruption of the societies and cultures concerned), and new societies took their place.
When, "ancient"** peoples realised that their relationship with their environment was never static but that; "all is impermanence" they knew that they had to find some way to both manifest that understanding and of charting the course of their own destiny, throughout the world this resulted in the construction (harmonic to the particular vernacular), of, "sacred" sites whose alignments and architecture allowed for both repeated observation and the prediction of astronomical events the knowledge of which was essential for successful interaction with a, "dynamic" environment. This knowledge can, as stated above, become, "lost" though and as with all human evolution the societies and cultures concerned were invariably forced to take two-steps-back as part of the learning process of our species.
"Nicholas Culpeper's Complete Herbal lists the rulership of plants and planets. He picked and dried the herbs himself, choosing the right astrological moment to do so. Culpeper suggested that plants are best gathered during the planetary hour associated with the plant. Yes, even hours are ruled by planets. For instance, a Mercury plant like Lavender is best gathered during the hour of the day ruled by Mercury. The aim was to pluck the herb/plant at its greatest potency***.
The first anaesthetics were herbs of course, such as Opium and Hemp - narcotics that come under the rulership of Neptune, a planet associated with the unconscious.
Planetary Associations of Herbs
JupiterHerbs under the dominion of Jupiter include agrimony, alexanders, asparagus, avens, balm, barley, basil, beet, betony, bloodroot, borage, bugloss, bur marigold (Bidens spp.), centaury, chervil, chick pea, chicory, cicely (sweet), cinquefoil, colewort, costmary (alecost), daffodil (narcissus), dandelion, endive, feverfew, flax, garlic mustard, hart's tongue, houseleek, hyacinth, hyssop, liverwort, lungwort, marjoram, meadowsweet, milk-thistle, milkweed, mint, ox-eye daisy, ox-tongue, paeony, pimpernel, pinks, Polygonum spp., self-heal (all-heal), rhubarb, rice, rose (esp. red), sage, samphire, scurvy grass, squinancy (quinsywort), St. John's wort, stonecrop, strawberry, violet (sweet), water figwort (water betony), wheat, and willowherb. Trees include almond, apple, apricot, bay, beech, bilberry, birch, (sweet) chestnut, clove, fig, gooseberry, hazel, linden (lime), liquorice, manna, maple, mulberry, nutmeg (inc. mace), oak, olive, peach, pear, pine, pistachio, spruce, sumac, thorn-apple, and (grape) vine.
MarsHerbs under the dominion of Mars are mostly those red in colour, with sharp, pointed leaves, a caustic, burning taste, and a love for growing in dry places, with a corrosive, penetrative action on the human body, generating a subtle heat. They include wood anemone, amaranthus, asarabacca, basil, bindweed, brooklime, broom-rape, butcher's broom, Scotch broom, goldilocks buttercup, bryony, cayenne (chili), lesser celandine, chick pea, chive, cress, crowfoots, cuckoo-pint, cumin, daffodil, dame's rocket (Hesperis / eveweed), eggplant, erysimum (treacle mustard / wormseed mustard), fenugreek, fleabane, frankincense, galangal, garlic, gentian (autumn), (wall) germander, ground pine, hedge hyssop, hedge mustard, hellebore, hop, horehound (white), horseradish, leek, lettuce (wild), madder, marjoram, marrow, masterwort, mustard (black and white), nettle, onion, pepper, Polygonum spp, radish, restharrow, rhubarb, rue, saltwort (Russian thistle), sanicle, sarsaparilla (Smilax), sowbread (ivy-leaf cyclamen), spurge, squinancy, tarragon, teasel, cotton thistle, holy (or blessed) thistle, sowthistle, star thistle, toadflax (flaxweed), tobacco, weld, sweet woodruff, wormwood. Trees include bitter almond, barberry, chestnut, cinnamon, gorse, hawthorn, pear (wild), pine, gum tragacanth, savine (dwarf juniper), tamarind, and all that are prickly.
VenusHerbs under the dominion of Venus include ale hoof, amaranthus, anemone, annual rocket cress, apple tree, arrach, barberry, birch tree, blight, bramble or blackberry, bugle, burdock, carnation, catmint, cherry tree, coltsfoot, common alder tree, common tansy, columbines, cornel tree, cowslips, crabs claws, crane's bill, cudweed, currants (red, white, black), daisy, elder, figwort, filipendula, french beans, geranium, golden rod, gromel, herb robert, herb true-love, lady's bedstraw, lady's mantel, mallows and marshmallows, mint, moneywort, mugwort, navew, orach, oxlip, parsnip, peach tree, pear tree, pennyroyal, pennywort, plowmans spikenard, plantain, plums, primrose, robert geranium, rough shepherds needle, shepherds needle, self-heal, sicklewort, skirret, soapwort, sorrel, sow thistle, speedwell, spignel, strawberry, sycamore tree, thyme, vervain, violet, water pepper, weld, wild teasel, winter-cherries, wood sage, yarrow.
SaturnHerbs under the dominion of Saturn include aconite (monkshood), amaranth, angelica, baneberry, barley, beet (red), belladonna (deadly nightshade), birdsfoot trefoil, bistort, burdock, cabbage, candytuft, cardus benedictus, castor oil plant, lesser celandine (pilewort), cleavers (goosegrass), comfrey, cornflower, crosswort, cudweed, cumin, bearded darnel, dodder, earth chestnuts, ground elder (bishop's weed / goutweed), endive, ferns (Asplenium), Royal fern, fireweed, flax, fleawort, fumitory, stinking gladwin, hare's ear, hawkweed, heartsease, hellebore, false hellebore, hemlock, hemp (cannabis), henbane, horsetail, houseleek, knapweed (greater), lentil, mallow, mandrake, marrow, mullein, nightshade (common), parsnip, pepper, buck's horn plantain, polypody, poppy (inc. corn / field), rue, rupturewort, meadow saffron, saffron, sage, shepherd's purse, Solomon's sea, starflower, melancholy thistle, toadflax (flaxweed), tutsan, valerian, vervain, water-parsnip, water-violet, willowherb, and dyer's woad. Trees include acacia, blackberry, blackthorn, box, buckthorn, caper, elm, holly, ivy, myrtle, olive, pine, poplar, quince, savine (dwarf Juniper), sloe, tamarisk, turpentine tree, willow, yew.
The SunHerbs under the dominion of the Sun are those of pleasant smell, good flavour, a love of open, sunny places, majestic form, and yellow or reddish flowers, with uses connected with the heart, the eyes, resistance of poison and evils, and comforting of the vital organs. They include amber, angelica, balm, barley, burnet, burning bush, butterbur, celandine (greater), centaury, chamomile, chick pea, cinnamon, cinquefoil, cumin, daffodil, elecampane, fenugreek, feverfew, frankincense, galangal, garlic, ginger, eyebright, hellebore, lavender, leek, lovage, maize, marigold, marjoram, onion, paeony, pepper, pimpernel, radish, rice, rosemary, rue, saffron, spikenard, St. John's wort, storax tree, sugar cane, sundew, tormentil, vervain, viper's bugloss, and water-lily. Trees include ash, bay, cedar, citrus (lemon, orange), heliotrope, ivy, juniper, laurel, mistletoe, mulberry, myrrh, palm, vines, and grape vines." Go to: http://www.complete-herbal.com/history.htm
This notion seems both strange and barbaric to the post Enlightenment mind but all revolutions throw babies out with the bathwater and such has been the case for much of the lore which preceded the appropriation of religion by the martial states. Technology has fostered the illusion that man may impose his own order on the natural world as opposed to learning from nature in order to harmonise with it, that we are currently experiencing a denouement that parallels those suffered by other, "revolutionary" societies which had come to believe their own propaganda should be clear to even the previously most blinkered by now.
Many who proselytise for permaculture, biodynamics and, "lunar planting" in Britain do so whilst labouring under the misapprehension that one can indulge in such practices here whilst still using both the Gregorian calendar and a Mediterranean/Middle Eastern astrological system. Astrological systems are specific to their vernacular, this should be obvious, remember that such systems are rooted in agricultural practice and just as the plants grown in different regions of the world differ so do the planets and cosmic systems which have influence over them and with which they correspond. Maize grown in South America does not vibrate on the same harmonic as do grains grown in Western Europe, yes there have been huge numbers of species introduced from different regions to different regions all over the planet but these should be integrated into the pre-existing practices of the regions in which they are intended to be introduced based on an understanding of the energies which govern those regions; in order that integration can take place it is, therefore, essential to understand the cosmic and planetary forces which influence the region in which one is working and that is the problem here in Britain for a, "true accounting" of our Brythonic astrology has not been properly undertaken, sacred sites aligned to stars systems not recognised by the Mediterranean or Middle Eastern astronomers are ignored by even, so-called, "serious" researchers and, "hit-it-with-a-hammer" type astrological, "bodges" abound. Take the issue that prompted me to post on this subject today; "whence falls Beltayne this year?" The, "bodge" is to say; "well, "May Day" is the 1st of May (Gregorian), so pick the full moon nearest to that date!" Which would be on April 19th this year, but this is obviously far from satisfactory; as we know the lunar and solar cycles turn at very different speeds so it is far preferable to know which constellation (star-sign), the sun must enter into prior to the full moon that defines the sabbat but if one doesn't know which constellations one is using or how they are characterised it is impossible to predict the date of the sabbat with any accuracy (the planets also, "migrate", of-course, and to know what their movements signify is also essential -see quotes from and comments on Culpeper-). This is especially important when it comes to germination and propagation (et.al), because as is true in many religions; "one does not labour on the sabbath", or to put it more accurately in terms of Wicca (the belief system that preserves more Brythonic lore than any other); "one does not raise on the sabbat!"** Sabbats are times when spiritual and communal energies come to the fore, when humanity must be, "true to its nature" and manifest the vibrations which are at their zenith at these times by becoming a, "pure channel" for them, preparations must already have been made, the grosser materials must transform into the, "finer-stuff" of the etheric energies in order to return to their origin for when one is attached to the material one imposes stasis on the dynamic equilibrium that informs the vitality of life and begins to manifest Thanatos where there should be Eros (and yes the Mediterranean cultures, religions and philosophies do have their place -when properly integrated-).
*Briton is an interesting case in this regard (an, "exception that proves the rule"?), because the Brythonic culture was never civilised, nevertheless when man started to forge metals from the earth the temptation grew to impose his will on both people and environment and it was during the bronze and iron ages that human sacrifice became known in these islands where and among whom (although only among some not all), it had not been known before and it was the possession of the resources needed to manufacture arms that was our downfall for it was our precious tin that really drove the Romans to make strenuous efforts to concur these islands and subjugate their peoples, therefore, it can be seen that "civilisation" is not necessarily a prerequisite for cultural and societal collapse its just that such have often manifested themselves in the form of the fall of civilisations.
**It is my understanding that this prohibition (as regards the practice of agriculture), mainly relates to the, "breaking of soil" and the consequent disturbance of its ecosystem.
Nb. Many now-days like to proselytise for the notion that our Brythonic culture and religion went through, "revolutionary" changes at various points in our history, however, those who do so fail to realise that the religion remained essentially the same but was informed by technological change (such as the use of metals -smelting and forging of tools-), thus we see developments in the design of sacred sites from simple mounds to the sublimity of the henges (both stone and wooden), and eventually the subtle, "earth carving" represented by the Bronze Age, "Uffington Dragon" (that is not a horse but rather a representation of the, "fire-from-the-earth" that must be, "appeased" and befriended in order to manifest the treasure of the bronze and iron ages).
Whilst it is obviously true that the, "Beaker People" (whose smelting abilities are thought to have ushered in the Bronze Age in Britain), brought a new technological understanding and a different culture with them, when they migrated here from central Europe, such did not fundamentally change the pantheon or religious practices of these islands, henges and stone circles continued to be constructed in Britain well into the Bronze Age, moreover, without Britain's tin resources the technologies of the Beaker People would have been next to useless. Perhaps (again see following post), there are parallels here with the Norse pantheon and their belief in the Aesir and the Vanir whereby the Vanir represent the more "magical" understandings of, "The Old Religion" and Odin and his Aesir represent the more "physical", materially concerned (and also unfortunately), warlike culture of the new technologies (go to: https://norse-mythology.org/tales/the-aesir-vanir-war/ & http://www.hurstwic.org/history/articles/mythology/myths/text/first_war.htm
**Were they really "ancient"? Much of their understanding seems very modern to me or at least highly necessary to be both comprehended and integrated by our so-called, "modern" societies.
***Ayurveda the astrologically based system of medicinal practice with its genesis in the Indus Valley culture of India takes the minutiae of an astrological system to its limits, but let's remember, quote; "The, "environmental experience" to which I refer above is not simply that of one generation it includes the entire, "racial memory" of the people and will (of-course), have included, "The Flood" and many other cataclysmic events (dating back to the dawn of man itself). "Harry and Ron" had not only been exposed to these experiences (and the, "mythical" tales which kept them alive throughout the generations), but also to the movements of the heavens on a nightly basis. It is the conceit of modern man who spends much of his time in-front of (what one of my history teachers used to refer to as); "the smelly telly" that he is only now able to divine the movements and purpose (that is if he thinks they have one), of the heavens. It is obvious (and explains much of the, "amazing" archaeological evidence of the astronomical/astrological -"astrologomal"-, accuracy and precision of ancient cultures throughout the World), that clear skies, repeated observation and careful record keeping led, "ancient" man to make many startling discoveries (both in mathematics, medicine and environmental science -incl.agricultural science and, "plant lore"-)" Go to: http://www.arafel.co.uk/2014/01/the-cerridwen-update-on-mesolithic.html
and from the same post; "If we wish to understand the mindset of our ancestors in relation to the colonisation of Britain I believe that we must understand the geological events which preceded the final retreat of Britain's ice-sheets. To this end I again refer the reader to Peter Warlow's genuinely mind-bending book; "The Reversing Earth" (let's put it this way static conceptions get us nowhere ), and to the work of Adrian Gilbert co-author of; "The Orion Mystery" and author of; "The Holy Kingdom"; when you then include Michael Poynder's; "PI in The Sky" and James Vogh's; "The Thirteenth Sign" you should come to one realisation (amongst the myriad), which is that; when, "ancient" (careful), man wrote anything down he did so for a reason, materials were too precious and skills too rare to waste on trivialities.
Par exemple oblique..
"Ancient man clearly attempted to build accurate circles, he made many brave attempts (of which Stonehenge is perhaps the best example), but he never quite managed it!"
(in other words; "brave try grunty could do better 4/10!")
"Come over here. and get hold of this."
(hands him pointed stick tied to length of rope or heavy twine)
"Right! Ron, you grab this."
(hands, "Ron" the other end of the, "rope" which is also tied to a pointed stick)
"Right, Ron you stick your end in the ground."
"O.K." Says Ron and does so.
"Harry, you walk away until the rope is taught and then walk around Ron's stick keeping the rope taught whilst scraping the pointed end of your stick in the ground as you do so!"
(after a few attempts they managed to draw a fairly accurate circle)*
*I mean Ron's stick was dislodged a few times before they got the knack and Harry's sobriety was always in question, but they persevered. "....and....
"You know I also have a sneaking suspicion that the; "Cursus" at Stonehenge may well have truly been, "dead-ground*". From; "What's that Coming Over The Hill?"
"Geo" - "Metry" = "Earth/(ground)" - "Measurement" The Pythagorean Brotherhood were it seems taught their "spacial-math" by the (for want of a better description), "Brythonic Hyperboreans", .. #AntikytheraMechanism
*Also see esp. "Beth-Luis-Fearn" The "Brythonic" Tree Calendar at Imbolc" go to: http://gkhales.blogspot.co.uk/2014/02/beth-luis-fearn-brethonic-tree-calendar.html
with regard to the significance of a cursus that describes the; "Death of the Sun King""
Neither of the following sites exemplify anything like a complete understanding of the subtleties of Bythonic lore nevertheless they can be useful in helping one to come to that understanding for oneself.
"Moonwise" Go to: https://www.moonwise.co.uk/calendarpage/calendarpage.php
"MoonGiant" Go to: https://www.moongiant.com/
Also see the works of Lyall Watson (RIP), go to: https://www.amazon.co.uk/l/B000APJLLE?_encoding=UTF8&redirectedFromKindleDbs=true&rfkd=1&shoppingPortalEnabled=true obituary, go to: https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/obituaries/2236703/Lyall-Watson.html and:
http://www.arafel.co.uk/2013/12/blog-post.html & http://www.arafel.co.uk/2012/02/civilisation-refutation.html