Monday, 30 June 2014

"Plastics, Bio-fuels, Synergisms, Synthesis and Balance." Pt.2


Quote: "Second Lewis's note on wood-alcohol. And coppices of any sort are great for lots of other ecological

Posted by Rhisiart Gwilym on June 15, 2014, 9:33 am, in reply to "Bio fuels, particularly wood, are excellent, eco-sound fuels - for a SMALL ENOUGH human population,"

reasons too - even whilst they're providing a moderate flow of very clean, ultimately carbon-neutral liquid fuel.

BTW, for the latest, cutting-edge generation of ultra-efficient, ultra-clean wood-burning Rocket stoves (a home-built own-design variant of which I just happen to have working in my boat; ever the mucky-handed practitioner of what I preach! See ma welder-burn scars, Jimmie... ) here, for example:

http://www.aprovecho.org/lab/index.php

That's one form of efficiency which I would approve, because it's appropriate. (Hint: use 3mm stainless steel for the burn tube, while it's still freely available at tolerable prices; otherwise low-tech, locally-made refractory tiles) Several billion people still cook and/or heat wholly or mainly with wood."

"Sea based bio-fuels are not "Anti-Arbore"

Posted by Gerard on June 15, 2014, 4:13 pm, in reply to "Second Lewis's note on wood-alcohol. And coppices of any sort are great for lots of other ecological"

The idea of cleaning the seas is so that we will able to make sensible use of our forests I fail to see your objection. Look at what has happened in Argentina VAST amounts of monocultured land end up providing only a small percentage of global annual consumption.

Quote: "Despite the commercial success of biodiesel in Argentina, there have been critics of its environmental impact. Agricultural lands in Santa Fe province have been growing soy for many years, so primary forest has not been cleared to make way for fuel crops – unlike some biodiesel operations in South East Asia. Nonetheless, the knock-on effects of using potential food production capacity for fuel are hard to measure, and increasing soy production has been blamed within Argentina for rising beef prices – an extremely politicised issue as beef is an important staple of the Argentinian diet.

The more intense method of making biofuels from algae offer one potential solution to the large amount of land required. While soy produces approximately 440 litres/ha/year, proponents of microalgae, such as Biocombustibles del Chubut (BC), claim that 15-80,000 litres/ha/year can be produced using their methods. BC supplied the fuel used for the Airbus flight.

The National Technological University of Mar del Plata is also researching algae-based fuels. The university launched a project in 2010 to explore the possibility of using salt-water algae feeding on industrial emissions and sewage mud, and hopes to get a five-fold energy return on investment, producing 8,000 litres of fuel per hectare.

Oil Fox has also been exploring this route since 1997. The company’s plant grows algae in photo-bioreactors with the CO2 from a nearby coal-fired power station. Oil Fox, which opened its second algae plant in 2010, has reportedly signed an agreement with oil company TPF to supply 50,000 tonnes per year." Go to:
http://www.cleantechinvestor.com/portal/bioenergy/9328-argentina-biofuel-takes-off.html
 

Quote: "Nonpetroleum liquid resources remain a small but increasing source of liquids supply in the IEO2013 Reference case. Production of nonpetroleum liquids, such as biofuels, CTL, and GTL, is spurred by sustained high prices in the Reference case (Figure 32). However, biofuels development also relies heavily on country-specific programs or mandates. World production of nonpetroleum liquids, which in 2010 totaled only 1.6 million barrels per day (less than 2 percent of total world liquids production), increases to 4.6 million barrels per day in 2040, when it accounts for about 4 percent of total world liquids production.

Figure 32. World nonpetroleum liquids production by type, 2010 and 2040
figure data
In addition to summarizing the Reference case projection for liquid fuels, this chapter discusses alternative low and high oil price cases. It also provides a discussion of several special topics, including interdependence of production levels for major Persian Gulf suppliers, markets for NGPL, and the possible impact of tight oil on the global supply balance." Go to: http://www.eia.gov/forecasts/ieo/liquid_fuels.cfm

"The Agri-fuels Swindle

Posted by Lewis Cleverdon  on June 15, 2014, 5:45 pm, in reply to "Sea based bio-fuels are not "Anti-Arbore""

Gerard - while I'd fully agree that we've no farmland to spare for energy production, and extant forestry is an indispensable strategic resource both for biodiversity and its carbon bank, the avoidance of additional self-propagating damage to the seas' ecology is plainly no less crucial.

Great strides have been made in terms of GMOs (Genetically Mutilated Organisms) with a view to heavy corporate patent profits, and with such biotech the goal of GM-algae for fuel is getting nearer to commercial viability. Yet the risks of general deployment, and inevitable escapes, of mutilated marine algae are themselves potentially catastrophic.

The underlying swindle is that both marine GMO-fuels and Agri-fuels are hyped as displacing fossil fuels and saving carbon emissions. In reality they do nothing of the sort, since any fossil fuels locally displaced are promptly bought and burnt elsewhere.

Their actual function is not simply to increase the liquid fuel supply globally, but to help ensure the maintenance of the 1.0m bls/day supply cushion above global demand, without which the oil market siezes up - as in 2008 when prices spiked to $149/bbl. The consequences of that spike for the western 'financial-services-bubble' economy, we are still living with.

Regards,

Lewis"

"Re: The Agri-fuels Swindle

Posted by Gerard on June 16, 2014, 12:24 am, in reply to "The Agri-fuels Swindle"

Sorry? Aren't you agreeing with me? It is because many of us never SEE the damage we are causing The Oceans out-of-sight-out-of-mind applies. For the kind of volatiles we need on a large scale we will need an Ocean Harvest, otherwise "Emergence Theory's" laws apply and we experience a collapse.."

"More specifically..

Posted by Gerard on June 15, 2014, 4:24 pm, in reply to "Second Lewis's note on wood-alcohol. And coppices of any sort are great for lots of other ecological"

I agree with you about sustainable wood based fuel production for domestic and commercial power and heat but for trade and "intercourse" we will need the algal fuels..."
 

"A Resolution?!

Posted by Gerard on June 16, 2014, 12:33 am, in reply to "More specifically.."

Synergy may be "the true key" here for sheer voluome/hectare though we won't beat The Oceans it may however also be true that without the land-based (sustainable), options The Ocean Harvest will be meaningless/useless.." All posts from my thread on The "Medialens" message board.


Quote: "Phyto-Plankton/Ocean Flora Harvest.

Without clean seas* http://www.coml.org/image-gallery we will not be able to produce the fuels we will need. This is why we need a paradigm shift away from the old exploitative model (also see, "What's That Coming Over The Hill?" Go to: http://gkhales.blogspot.co.uk/2012/06/whats-that-coming-over-hill.html ).

*not just biologically clean but radiologically clean too." Go to: http://gkhales.blogspot.co.uk/2012/06/aunt-sally-whipping-boy.html

"Plastics, Bio-Fuels, Synergisms, Synthesis and Balance" Pt.1

Quote: "Paul Mines, CEO of Biome Bioplastics, commented:

We are extremely pleased with the initial results of the feasibility study, which show strong promise for integration into our product lines. Looking ahead, we anticipate that the availability of a high performance polymer, manufactured economically from renewable sources would considerably increase the bioplastic market.

Industrial biotechnology, the use of biological materials to make industrial products, is recognised by the UK government as a promising means of developing less carbon intensive products and processes, with an estimated value to the UK of between £4bn and £12bn by 2025."

Go to: http://www.biomebioplastics.com/research-confirms-next-generation-bioplastics-could-be-made-from-trees/

Marchwood Southampton I know the area (should do went over the fence at "Re-Chem" -as was-), we took pictures of low level radio-active waste containers waiting for their contents to be INCINERATED!

YUP! Incinerated kiddos; take a relatively harmless (at least "more easily safely disposable" go to: http://gkhales.blogspot.co.uk/2012/08/toxic-clean-ups-radiation-and-project.html re: "Project "Abaris"" -rocket-to-Sun method of captured & "stored" radio-active waste disposal achieves super-symmetry in hyper-time re: "Astrotometry"), substance, burn it until it particulates and then disperse it in the atmosphere (at relatively low levels too).

Remember also guys that the sort of dioxins and furans that are (ONLY), produced in the flues of waste incinerators are both carcinogenic and mutagenic and effective at any dose above absolute zero (as is? PLUTONIUM -closest chemical analogues-).."


The following are questions and responses from my "MediaLens" message board thread:

Quote: "Gerard - this research should be seen in the context of Wood Alcohol (aka Methanol) having first been commercially traded in Britain around 1690. Some here may be unaware that the last UK Coppice-to-Methanol plant (near Lydbrook in the Forest of Dean) was finally closed in the 1970s due to cheaper production from NS gas. Methanol is not only an exceptionally clean-burning liquid fuel [CH3OH] it also has outstanding combustion characteristics, which for decades meant it was the only fuel used in the Nazcar races.

Methanol is arguably the most versatile of chemicals as it can form the feedstock for over 95% of the industry's products. And that includes almost the full range of plastics.

Regards,

Lewis"


Quote:  "Living in "Hemp-shire" I of-course also wonder how much of a contribution hemp (and one can perhaps imagine a gradation of hemp-cannabis with an ever more volatile content), might make to the plastics (and various other polymers), industry. Plastics but not fuels, land-based bio-fuels are a ridiculously inefficient use of land as (except in the case of very specialised fuels etc.), is fresh water production a waste. We need clean seas (go to:
http://www.titan-oceanus.com/the-problem.html ), to produce the fuels we need not just chemically and biologically but radiologically too!" 




Quote:  "Bio fuels, particularly wood, are excellent, eco-sound fuels - for a SMALL ENOUGH human population,
Posted by Rhisiart Gwilym on June 15, 2014, 9:16 am, in reply to "Hemp and The Bio-Fuels Problem"
which we shall be getting without having to do a single thing about it, over the next few decades. Just as well, since we're clearly incapable - like yeast - of doing anything about it voluntarily.

Since we first started using fire, wood has been the premier, abundant, self-renewing fuel. It can do all those other things too, as chemical feedstock, as structural material, and on. Hemp can do lots of them also. All of this without any ecological insult - so long as human numbers, and human demand, are proportionate.

And as for 'ridiculously inefficient': check out the crucial opposition between - always fatally brittle - efficiency and resilience. Resilience is the essential item. The 'ridiculously inefficient' solar energy capture by photosynthesis - about 2 to 3 percent, I seem to recall, without being arsed to look it up - has proven effectual and very-long-term ecologically sustainable and benign. Where do we imagine all the sequestered fossil hydrocarbons that we're so hooked on (briefly, for the transient duration of the 'Single Giant Pulse Event' of industrial civilisation) came from in the first place...? So don't knock it. Those of our descendants who manage to get through the now-begun era of the Long Descent are going to be vitally dependent on the re-grown forests, as we always have been - even during the SGPE, actually.

This fuel-gift is besides all the other vital ecological, practical and spiritual gifts that forests give us, free, gratis, and for nothing. If there's one form of geo-engineering that we laughably-presumptuous humankind could undertake with real, high-likelihood chances of success, it's assisting - just assisting! - Gaia to re-forest her planet; mainly by just stopping our hindrances of her permanent, relentless drive to reforest anyway everywhere that trees can grow, if they're just left to get on with it. That's all it needs from us: designate areas, plant some useful (to us!) species initially, perhaps; but after that, just leave it alone; or at most, do forest-permaculture, with the bedrock commitment of all tailored-to-place permacultural methods to ecological responsibility as a prime directive. But beyond that, we really need to get rid of the indescribably foolish idea that we know best, and we're in charge. We don't, and we ain't"





 

Quote: "It must be said however that B.P are totally responsible for the actual accident (within the parameters of previously current* -and recently passed-, U.S industry practices, legislation and standards), however the responsibility for the ethos of expoitative and "fast-buck" practices is the industry's. I'm not an expert but wasn't/isn't (?) America the most influential oil producing/exploiting nation on the planet? The fact that following the accident B.P were attempting to "cobble together" a deep-water salvage/repair unit out of a couple of rusty bath-tubs on "Uncle Tom's" Louisiana dockside is the whole industry's responsiblity. The British Governmnent should make clear on B.P's behalf that whilst B.P accepts responsibility for the accident and it's aftermath it cannot accept sole responsibility for the "climate of exploitation" which has been engendered in the industry as a whole. There should be a limit to the financial burden placed on B.P and responsibilty for the rest of the environmental and social consequences of the disaster should be born by the industry (including the national governments of countries which profit from the presence of major private oil-companies on their soil ).

*You know like The Gulf Stream.

(Edit 04/01/11 ....we should offer to do as much as we possibly can to clean up what is undoubtedly our own mess and help to ensure that such a ridiculous disparity between the preparedness for disaster and the risks involved in the off-shore oil industry does not occur again.)

Sustainability

Economists note: If we did prepare properly for all possible eventualities within the oil industry (in terms of possible disaster scenarious involving all activities from oil-well to consumption), how much would it affect the profit margins?
Also, if the possible economic consequences of continuing to expoit this resource are so serious and the possibility of disaster so real, do we not conclude that we require far more investment in sustainable above ground (but not above water), fuel production methods?
"


Go to: "Aunt Sally whipping the Boy" http://gkhales.blogspot.co.uk/2012/06/aunt-sally-whipping-boy.html


Friday, 20 June 2014

Plastic from Trees! British company leads the field..

Quote:"The results stem from a grant from the UK's innovation agency, the Technology Strategy Board, awarded to a consortium led by Biome Bioplastics in early 2013 to investigate lignin as a new source of organic chemicals for bioplastics manufacture, which could signficantly reduce costs and increase performance of these sustainable materials.

Lignin is a complex hydrocarbon that helps to provide structural support in plants and trees. As a waste product of the pulp and paper industry, lignin is a potentially abundant and low-cost feedstock for the high performance chemicals that could provide the foundation for the next generation of bioplastics.

The research was undertaken in conjunction with the University of Warwick's Centre for Biotechnology and Biorefining led by Professor Tim Bugg, whose team has been working to develop methods to control the breakdown of lignin using bacteria and extract these chemicals in significant quantities.

The project has successfully demonstrated that bacteria can be effective in the selective degradation of lignin, and that the breakdown pathway can be controlled and improved using synthetic biology. Crucially, several organic chemicals have been produced at laboratory scale in promising yields that have potential use in bioplastic manufacture.

Initial scale-up trials on several of these target chemicals have demonstrated the potential for them to be produced at industrial scale, suggesting the commercial feasibility of using lignin-derived chemicals as an alternative for their petrochemical counterparts. Biome Bioplastics has also transformed these chemicals into a material that shows promising properties for use as an advanced bioplastic.

Professor Tim Bugg, Director of the Warwick Centre for Biotechnology and Biorefining, explains:

Scientists have been trying to extract chemicals from lignin for more than 30 years. Previously, chemical methods have been used but these produce a very complex mixture of hundreds of different products in very small amounts. By using bacteria found in soil we can manipulate the lignin degradation pathway to control the chemicals produced. This is groundbreaking work. We�ve made great progress over the last year and the results are very exciting.

The next phase of the project will examine how the yields of these organic chemicals can be increased using different bacteria and explore options for further scale-up of this technology. The first commercial target is to use the lignin-derived chemicals to replace the oil-derived equivalents currently used to convey strength and flexibility in some of Biome Bioplastics' products, further reducing cost and enhancing sustainability.

Paul Mines, CEO of Biome Bioplastics, commented:

We are extremely pleased with the initial results of the feasibility study, which show strong promise for integration into our product lines. Looking ahead, we anticipate that the availability of a high performance polymer, manufactured economically from renewable sources would considerably increase the bioplastic market.

Industrial biotechnology, the use of biological materials to make industrial products, is recognised by the UK government as a promising means of developing less carbon intensive products and processes, with an estimated value to the UK of between £4bn and £12bn by 2025."

Go to: http://www.biomebioplastics.com/research-confirms-next-generation-bioplastics-could-be-made-from-trees/

Marchwood Southampton I know the area (should do went over the fence at "Re-Chem" -as was-), we took pictures of low level radio-active waste containers waiting for their contents to be INCINERATED!

YUP! Incinerated kiddos; take a relatively harmless (at least "more easily safely disposable" go to: http://gkhales.blogspot.co.uk/2012/08/toxic-clean-ups-radiation-and-project.html re: "Project "Abaris"" -rocket-to-Sun method of captured & "stored" radio-active waste disposal achieves super-symmetry in hyper-time re: "Astrotometry"), substance, burn it until it particulates and then disperse it in the atmosphere (at relatively low levels too).

Remember also guys that the sort of dioxins and furans that are (ONLY), produced in the flues of waste incinerators are both carcinogenic and mutagenic and effective at any dose above absolute zero (as is? PLUTONIUM -closest chemical analogues-)...

Thursday, 19 June 2014

"We've got you surrounded!" (The threats to our bodies' bio-magnetic fields)

Quote: "A student has produced a series of vivid photographs that reveal what the networks that keep us connected to the web look like.
The images, created by Luis Hernan from Newcastle University, show spectres of Wi-Fi sweeping and swirling around in bright beams.
They were produced as part of Hernan's Digital Ethereal project, which aims to bring the invisible world around us to life.

  
 Luis, who is studying for a PhD in Architecture and Interaction Design, said he is fascinated with the idea of being able to see the hidden wireless networks which surround us.
  I call the images "spectres" because wireless networks remind me of ghosts,' he said.
'They are there but you can't see them with the human eye.
'The fact we are becoming increasingly reliant on something that we can't see intrigues me. I wanted to find a way to show the wireless which is around us and also to show how it changes.
'It is an impossibly fragile and volatile infrastructure that holds our digital technologies together, and shapes the way in which we interact with the digital world.
'Something as seemingly inconsequential as walking around the house will interfere with and reshape their propagation and strength field.
'Close the wrong door, and the bedroom becomes a dead spot for wireless.'


Hernan created the photographs using a custom-made instrument designed to reveal them.
It scans continuously for wireless networks, and transforms the signal strength to colour LEDs.
The results are multi-coloured streaks of light which twirl and wrap in spaces, showing how they surround objects and people. " Go to:  http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2662507/Whirling-Wi-Fi-Vibrant-images-reveal-wireless-networks-sweep-surround-us.html

Quote: "Keith Philips, brain tumor survivor: I would hold my cell phone here and the tumor was right there.
Stuart Cobb, brain tumor survivor: I always held it on my right side, right here. The industry should have put these warnings on these phones a long time ago.
RT: Professor Dariusz Leszczynski is one of the world's leading radiation biologists, and brave. He knew phone manufacturers would try to end his career for printing groundbreaking research, proving cell phones do cause biological damage.
Professor Leszczynski joins us, great to see you. How did the industry react?
Prof. Dariusz Leszczynski, Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Finland: So far I think I didn’t experience any smear campaign. But in my case it was just that the industry used their influence to prevent funding of my research projects.
RT: But studies like Professor Leszczynski’s now allow top neurosurgeons to issue a stark cell phone warning.
Dr. Keith Black, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center neurosurgeon: It's essentially cooking the brain.
RT: Ellie Marks' husband Alan suffered serious memory loss after years of using a mobile.
At 2am one night he had a massive seizure. Surgeons found a tumor the size of a golf ball right where he held the phone.
Ellie, thank you so much for joining us. Why are you and so many others suing the industry?
Ellie Marks, wife of brain tumor victim: There’s many many many others that are already deceased from this and are dying from this, younger than my husband. Some as young as 28 who are deceased and their neurosurgeons actually told them that it was probably their cell phone use.
We had about 20 cities and states that wanted to legislate as San Francisco had and they were all threatened with lawsuits by this industry.
RT: This is a photo of Bret Bocook's brain. The top quarter responsible for body balance has had to be removed after surgeons found this vast tumor right where he held the phone.
A US national rowing champion, now he can barely move.
Bret, great to speak to you, tell us about the class action lawsuit against the phone industry.
Bret Bocook, brain tumor victim: The only way you can educate the public against big business is through lawsuits" Go to:   http://gkhales.blogspot.co.uk/2014/01/the-dangers-of-mobile-phones-wi-fi-and.html

Quote: "The wireless radiation poisoning of human beings is now a global epidemic. The truth is simple...holding a cell phone to your head is a slow form of suicide. According to the Bioinitiative 2012 Report (www.bioinitiative.org), biological effects from radio frequency radiation (also known as microwave radiation) start at about 3.4 microwatts per square meter (average power density). Watch the Acoustimeter RF Meter move to the top of its measuring capacity the moment the cell phone connects the call! This RF radiation measurement coming from the cell phone is over 29,000 times where biological effects are known to start according to clinical data from independent researchers.
Learn more at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCaLwcpzmAp9cYPmMdKmhb9g 
" Go to: http://tv.naturalnews.com/v.asp?v=4E3C9D5CFAD232103983321A2792CAB9 For video.

Quote: "Scientists and Physicians call Health Canada to protect the public from radiofrequency radiation exposure

July 12, 2014.  On July 9th, C4ST (Canadians for Safe Technology) held a news conference in Ottawa asking for Health Canada to provide adequate Safety Code 6 guidelines to protect the public against radiofrequency radiation exposure.  C4ST is not alone.Screen Shot 2014-07-13 at 8.40.21 PM
This past week two declarations, one from Physicians (22 Canadian doctors) and one from Research Scientists (53 international scientists)  were presented to Health Canada.  These two declarations are
provided below and have also been added to the July 11, 2011 post of international appeals/resolutions/declarations calling for similar protection.
It is unconscionable that the primary health authority in Canada, Health Canada, has failed to provide protection against radiofrequency radiation as levels continue to increase in homes, schools, hospitals, offices, airports and airplanes, city streets, and residential neighbourhoods.
People are becoming ill and so far the medical profession in Canada, apart from a few enlightened individuals, is largely ignorant of the health risks of continuous exposure to wireless technology.  As long as levels fall below Safety Code 6 (SC6), an obsolete guideline based on a heating of tissue,  we are told this technology is safe.  Since levels seldom exceed SC6 the public, school officials, parents, teachers, doctors and nurses are under the false impression that they are all safe.  Even when levels exceed SC6, Health Canada officials tell us there is nothing to worry about!   Yet a growing number of people are becoming ill once a smart meter is attached to their home or Wi-Fi routers are installed in schools.
How much suffering are individuals expected to endure before Health Canada will admit that their guideline is inadequate and that levels need to be hundreds of times lower to protect the public and thousands of
times lower to protect those who have already become sensitive to this radiation?
When will Health Canada recommend there be white zones in public places (areas without radiation) similar to “smoke-free” environments?
Why is it not OK for children under the age of 18 to use cell phones but OK for these same children to be exposed to Wi-Fi microwave radiation all day in school?
Who is Health Canada protecting as they are definitely not protecting the health of Canadians!
Scientists and physicians tend to be conservative in their desire to become involved in political issues.  They seldom speak out and would prefer to provide information behind the scene and only when asked to do so.  This private communication with Health Canada has been fruitless and now a growing number of them are willing to make their concerns public.  Hence these two declarations.
Since 1997 more than 22 appeals, resolutions and declarations have been signed by scientists and medical doctors . . . but governments are not listening. The few exceptions where stricter guidelines are used include Russia, China, Italy, Switzerland and several other European countries.  While Canada is rushing to install powerful Wi-Fi routers in schools, countries like France are converting to fibre optics and banning Wi-Fi in the classroom!
Let’s hope that these  two declarations will provide a turning point in Canada. We need to educate doctors on how to diagnose electrohypersensitivity and how to help their patients recover.
We also need better guidelines and warnings from Health Canada to protect the health of all Canadian
s and especially children so that we can divert the health tsunami that is just around the corner.
Health Canada . . . time to come clean and live up to your responsibility to protect the Health of Canadians." Go to: http://www.magdahavas.com/scientists-and-physicians-call-health-canada-to-protect-the-public-from-radiofrequency-radiation-exposure/

Quote: "The BabySafe Project
 A new public awareness initiative designed to inform women about the links between pregnancy and wireless radiation.
 If you missed the June 3rd press conference, you can watch the replay below." For video go to:
http://www.babysafeproject.org/news-conference/

 Quote: "Why children absorb more microwave radiation than adults"

Computer simulation using MRI scans of children is the only possible way to determine the microwave radiation (MWR) absorbed in specific tissues in children. Children absorb more MWR than adults because their brain tissues are more absorbent, their skulls are thinner and their relative size is smaller. MWR from wireless devices has been declared a possible human carcinogen. Children are at greater risk than adults when exposed to any carcinogen. Because the average latency time between first exposure and diagnosis of a tumor can be decades, tumors induced in children may not be diagnosed until well into adulthood. The fetus is particularly vulnerable to MWR. MWR exposure can result in degeneration of the protective myelin sheath that surrounds brain neurons. MWR-emitting toys are being sold for use by young infants and toddlers. Digital dementia has been reported in school age children. A case study has shown when cellphones are placed in teenage girls’ bras multiple primary breast cancer develop beneath where the phones are placed. MWR exposure limits have remained unchanged for 19 years. All manufacturers of smartphones have warnings which describe the minimum distance at which phone must be kept away from users in order to not exceed the present legal limits for exposure to MWR. The exposure limit for laptop computers and tablets is set when devices are tested 20 cm away from the body. Belgium, France, India and other technologically sophisticated governments are passing laws and/or issuing warnings about children's use of wireless devices." For full article go to: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2213879X14000583



Quote: "Could we lose the ability to disseminate vital information about the planet's welfare because certain so-called "Whistle Blowers" have poisoned the well of public confidence in the quest for ever more "sensational" revelations about the major powers?
Where is the information on Kashiwazaki-Kariwa (go to http://www.greenpeace.org/international/en/news/features/earthquake-fire-and-nuclear-l/ -Edited 11/12/10-)? What really happened to Vesta's off-shore wind-farm contracts? Where did A.I.D.S come from? What is the real cost of depleted uranium usage? How do you make a cow "mad"? Is fluoride really dangerous? Does genetic modification represent a "Frankenstein's Monster"? Will your mobile phone, "Bluetooth" or "Wifi" rot your brain? What is the truth about the incineration industry or the CO2 profile of the nuclear industry? These are the vital questions.
Whilst "Wikileaks" and Mr.Assange attract all the attention to themselves do not their actions also serve to further obscure the already occluded reality of our planetary environment's current state? Will it be necessary for more campaigning environmentalists to be murdered before their work is taken seriously, whilst others congratulate themselves about "what clever boys and girls they are" for pulling one more soft fruit from the already over-stuffed international pie?"...
"Having said all this of-course the prospect of being forced to observe the beast he has roused then consumming poor Mr.Assange is extremely unedifying." Go to:
http://gkhales.blogspot.co.uk/2012/06/could-wikileaks-sink-ship.html

Quote: "Is a Viktor Schauberger vortex-engine the physics and research (and mode of operation for the primary power source), the SS were guarding? 

Quote: "The Repulsin models operated in the following way:


When the main electric engine is started, the Coanda effect begins to create a differential aerodynamic pressure between the outer and inner surface of the primary hull. At a higher speed, the vortex chamber becomes a type of high electrostatic generator due to the air particles, in high speed motion, acting as an electrical charge transporter. The Repulsin A will begin to glow due to strong ionization effect of the air. Now we have all the ingredients for a continuous and strong Aether flow along the main axis from the top to the bottom of the craft. The radial air pressure required for lifting 1 kg with the Coanda Effect is roughly 1.4 kg/cm2.


Internal suction screw impellers of the Schauberger Repulsin-B model

In the Repulsin B the vortex turbine has been improved for increasing the “Implosion Effect” and thus the lifting force. In the Repulsin B the upper membrane is fixed and the lower rotates at high speed. On the edge rim there are special shaped blades of boomerang configuration. There are 120 blades that are 3 degrees spaced around the rim. The enhanced vortex turbine increases significantly the “implosion” effect in the vortex chamber. This contributes to it being able to generate a stronger thrust than the centrifugal turbine used in the Repulsin A. By means of suction screw-impeller (which revolved from the outside towards the inside along a cycloid, spiral space curve) the same type of force is generated which creates twisters, cyclones, and typhoons through the effect of either suction or implosion.


Repulsin B inner workings

Work on the Repulsin B continued in 1944 at the Technical College of Engineering at Rosenhügel in Vienna. Schauberger was finally released back to Leonstein, Austria that same year. It appears that the SS had discarded the idea of applying the Schauberger motor to a submarine when the benefits would greatly improve their work on the secret Flugkreisel which was taken from Rudolf Schriever back in 1941. By 1943 the machine had flown but proved to be unstable. The leader of the SS replacement team was Dr. Richard Miethe who proposed several Flugkreisel replacements with varied power plants, most of which relied on jets or rocket power, until it was learned that Schauberger had engineered a type of turbine machine that would create an up-current of axially-spinning air so powerful that the up-current’s drag force would speed the whole machine higher and higher into the air with a thrust equal to 10,000 hp simply by moving “air”. The turbine was considered a priority for flight development into a manned machine by the SS. It is speculated that Miethe’s final design built in Breslau that flew in 1944 was an enlarged manned Repulsin-type craft." Go to: http://discaircraft.greyfalcon.us/Viktor%20Schauberger.htm

Many questions suggest themselves;

Was a Schauberger magnetised liquid-metal the "energised medium" for an ion-migrating engine? How much of a part did (non-ballistic), nuclear physics play in the research? Are there fields of atomic physics into which the NAZIs were researching which have been deliberately occluded by the major powers since the war? How much of a role did superconductors play?" Go to: http://gkhales.blogspot.co.uk/2015/09/forbidden-history-and-reich-of-black-sun.html

Quote: "Some thoughts on Bose-Einstein condensate (nature abhors a vacuum), ..
Quote: "Compared to more commonly encountered states of matter, Bose–Einstein condensates are extremely fragile. The slightest interaction with the external environment can be enough to warm them past the condensation threshold, eliminating their interesting properties and forming a normal gas.[citation needed]*
Nevertheless, they have proven useful in exploring a wide range of questions in fundamental physics, and the years since the initial discoveries by the JILA and MIT groups have seen an increase in experimental and theoretical activity. Examples include experiments that have demonstrated interference between condensates due to wave–particle duality,*[25] the study of superfluidity and quantized vortices
*, the creation of bright matter wave solitons from Bose condensates confined to one dimension, and the slowing of light pulses to very low speeds using electromagnetically induced transparency.[26] Vortices in Bose–Einstein condensates are also currently the subject of analogue gravity research, studying the possibility of modeling black holes and their related phenomena in such environments in the laboratory.*"..

"In the image accompanying this article, the velocity-distribution data indicates the formation of a Bose–Einstein condensate out of a gas of rubidium atoms. The false colors indicate the number of atoms at each velocity, with red being the fewest and white being the most. The areas appearing white and light blue are at the lowest velocities. The peak is not infinitely narrow because of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle: spatially confined atoms have a minimum width velocity distribution*"..


"To calculate the transition temperature at any density, integrate, over all momentum states, the expression for maximum number of excited particles, p/(1 − p):
\,
 N = V \int {d^3k \over (2\pi)^3} {p(k)\over 1-p(k)} = V \int {d^3k \over (2\pi)^3} {1 \over e^{k^2\over 2mT}-1}

\,
p(k)= e^{-k^2\over 2mT}.
         " Go to: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bose%E2%80%93Einstein_condensate

*Italics mine..
An "inversion" can often be very revealling..which is why as a physicist I am fascinated by the "Venus Capture" story of the Flood "Myth" (first postulated by Peter Warlow -at least during our current Romanised Christian/Enlightenment epoch-), that states that Earth originally rotated in the opposite direction (or had been rotating West-East for as long as anyone could remember at the time), and that the passage of Venus into the inner solar system induced opposite spin (gravitationally), such that The Earth then inverted itself about its axis (remaining in orbit but the other way up!).
 What are very revealling about this notion are the "approaches" of  Aphrodite herself..


..which describe a perfect pentagram, this suggests that the gravitational influence of Venus has been a vital stabilising factor in the continuing evolution of life on Earth..(any -apparent-, slight variances in the figure described are undoubtedly the result of the "Astrotometric"* relationship between observer and observed).

* John Bryant's Astrotometric theory is brilliant, however I am afraid he has been hounded to breaking point recently;  I urge fellow members of the scientific community  to make themselves aware of  John's work on "Hypertime" and "The Astrotome" esp. re: sun-grazing comets and coronal mass ejections, all he has so far received from the established and institutionalised scientific community is hostility, go to: http://astrotometry.com/ 
" Go to: http://gkhales.blogspot.co.uk/2015/09/the-epidemiology-of-khaos-or-problem.html

"What has this to do with our environmental concerns?"
I believe that the integrity of the body's biomagnetic field is compromised by the use of such devices.

Also go to.. http://www.biomagnetic.org/biomagnetic%20fields.html http://www.biomagnetic.org/index.html http://www.military-weapon.com/mailbox/SENATOR_PATRICK_LEAHY.PDF

Both our individual bodies' biomagnetic fields and the planet's are under attack in many ways, go to http://www.megalithic.co.uk/article.php?sid=2146411026 http://www.friendsofthornborough.org.uk/ Save Thornborough Henges Petition:
http://www.petitiononline.com/Pet10001/

Dental amalgams can also have a direct effect on the body's biomagnetic field, go to http://www.flcv.com/galv.html

More Dangerous Dentistry?

"Dental composites are complex mixtures of materials that generally consist of an organic resin matrix, reinforcing inorganic filler and a silane-coupling agent, which connects the filler and the resin matrix. Sometimes known as "white filling" or "synthetic porcelain", composites are commonly used as a tooth-colored restorative material, for example in the fabrication of fillings and veneers, and the cementation of crowns. Composites without the filler and coupling agent are commonly used as sealants, which effectively isolate pits and fissures to help prevent caries in adults and children.

Composite resins are formulated from a mixture of monomers and are most commonly based on bisphenol A glycidyl methacrylate, usually abbreviated as bis-GMA and sometimes known as Bowen's monomer after it's inventor. Because of the new treatment options made available, bis-GMA based composites are considered to be one of the most significant innovations of modern dentistry.

In addition to bis-GMA, composite resins generally include other monomers to modify the properties of the resin, for example bisphenol A dimethacrylate (bis-DMA), ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA). Although several key components of composite resins are derived from BPA, there is no known use of BPA itself in composite resins.

Composites and sealants are provided and applied in the form of a paste or viscous liquid, which is then cured or hardened after application by polymerization of the resin with a UV or visible light treatment. In addition to monomers and fillers, composites also may contain initiators, to promote polymerization from light treatment, and stabilizers, to maximize storage of the uncured resin and stability of the cured resin. (Soderholm and Mariotti, 1999; Guertsen, 1998)." From www.bisphenol-a.org http://www.bisphenol-a.org/human/dental.html

However....

"Tooth-coloured fillings
Tooth-coloured filling materials don't contain mercury. However, there have been concerns that they release a chemical called bisphenol A. This chemical is also used in the manufacture of some food packaging and water pipes.

Bisphenol A appears to copy the action of human oestrogen hormones and has been linked to breast cancer, prostate cancer and male infertility. The British Dental Association has looked into this and found that most filling materials don't release bisphenol A. There is no evidence of harm from this type of filling. However, this chemical is being used less in newer filling products*." From http://hcd2.bupa.co.uk/fact_sheets/html/teeth_restoring.html

*Italics mine.

BPA Hazard with Dental Fillings, Sealants Studied UNC Health Care
http://ncchildrenshospital.staywellsolutionsonline.com/Children/NewsRecent/88,P10068

"Americans are exposed to the hormone-disrupting chemical, BPA, at levels eight times higher than those recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, according to a new study. Researchers from the University of Missouri and Washington State University reached that conclusion after tests showed that the effects on animals of the chemical bisphenol A, or BPA — a potentially harmful compound found in thousands of everyday plastics, including bottles — is more relevant to human health than previously thought." From http://e360.yale.edu/digest/human_exposure_to_bpa_far_higher_than_earlier_estimates_study_says/2602/

BPA Increases Cadmium Toxicity http://journals.prous.com/journals/servlet/xmlxsl/pk_journals.xml_summary_pr?p_JournalId=6&p_RefId=662127&p_IsPs=N

"Typically, the best way to treat cadmium poisoning is to remove the contaminated object and treat the individual symptoms. For instance, your child may have to take medications to relax the airways so that wheezing is decreased.

Sadly, if the exposure is prolonged, it can result in serious and permanent health complications, such as damage to your liver and kidneys. Additionally, it can cause brain damage if the child absorbs the chemical at a young age. To protect your child from this, you should avoid cheaply made jewelry and metal items that your child may put in and around his or her mouth."

Wednesday, 18 June 2014

The Alternative to Over-Head Power Lines; "Gas-Insulated Systems"

Quote: "Gas Insulated Lines
 
Gas Insulated Lines or GIL are perhaps the most promising technology that can deliver reliable, efficient, high capacity underground electricity transmission. For that reason alone, we all need to understand the rudiments of this technology,its benefits and costs.

Patents for GIL have been held since the 1960’s and in Germany, engineering giant Siemens has had a system running beneath the black forest for over 30 years. And in all that time it has run faultlessly, exhibiting no degradation. So GIL is not a new technology.

GIL development is not restricted to Germany though. In Korea, manufacturing company LS Cable & System now manufacture GIL and the above large picture shows a section through their product. Japan and America also have their own manufacturers with Japan having a very early successful implementation of the technology running for years. So GIL is a worldwide technology.

You will see from the large picture above that GIL is an essentially simple technology. A long while ago, it was discovered that the majority of the energy flowing in a high capacity transmission cable actually flows through the outer part of the conductor. So if you don’t need the core of the conductor, why have one? Hence GIL being based on the tubular aluminium design you see above.

GIL is in fact a tube within a tube. The inner one conducts the electricity, the outer contains the insulating gas. The two are kept apart using epoxy (as in Araldite) spacers. Once assembled, the sections of GIL that form a complete transmission system are filled with a pressurised mixture of gasses, 80% nitrogen (which you are surrounded by right now) and 20% sulphur hexafloride. This last gas is a greenhouse gas and so stringent precautions are taken to prevent leakage.

Assembly of GIL (shown top left) involves bringing lengths of the aluminium components to site and flawlessly welding them together using fully automated welding machines that X-ray the weld continuously to test for weld quality.

GIL can be installed in a number of ways which include direct burial and wall mounting in a tunnel (pictured above left). Whilst direct burial has been done in Europe, tunnel mounting brings benefits of serviceability and upgradability. This is because GIL has the enormous benefit of giving out very low heat and electromagnetic emissions compared with cables. In turn, this allows GIL to be racked close together on tunnel walls. If you need to increase capacity, you simply add more GIL lines into the tunnel. And because the emissions are low, engineers can service one GIL while all the others are live. This is not possible with underground cable transmission systems.

We are indebted to Siemens for the images below which illustrate how GIL can be installed. The key point to note is that GIL in tunnels have a very small footprint in the landscape when compared to either underground cables or overhead lines." Go to: http://www.s258888288.websitehome.co.uk/Underground/GIL.html










Thursday, 12 June 2014

Dangerous Solar Flare Coincides with FULL MOON (Friday 13th)

Quote: "The sun has had three major solar flares on its surface in the past two days that have affected communications on Earth and could send a shockwave through Earth this Friday, according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

The “solar events” caused brief blackouts in high frequency communications when they struck, twice on Tuesday morning and once this morning, all between the hours of 7 a.m. and 9 a.m. EDT.Solar flares are bursts of radiation on the sun’s surface. The disturbance to Earth’s atmosphere can disrupt GPS and communications signals, according to NASA.


One of the flares created a “coronal mass ejection” that actually could come into contact with Earth on Friday, according to NOAA. The ejection is essentially a huge cloud of plasma that could hit the Earth and cause a shock wave, affecting communications systems. If an ejection were to hit Earth on Friday, scientists expect it would only cause a minor geo-magnetic storm, according to NOAA.


The flares were observed by NASA, which posted "stunning"* photos and videos of the events on its website."


*Parenthesis mine Ed.



Go to: http://abcnews.go.com/blogs/technology/2014/06/solar-flares-disrupt-communications-on-earth-could-send-shockwave-on-friday-the-13th/#.U5kw5Ko9kKc.facebook





Go to: "What's that coming Over the Hill?" http://gkhales.blogspot.co.uk/2012/06/whats-that-coming-over-hill.html

"Astrotometry" on YouTube; Go to:   https://www.youtube.com/user/astrotometry

Wednesday, 11 June 2014

"Erotic" vs "Thanotic" Design/Architecture

 "Vibrational" Science is nothing less than the quest for harmony. String theory, quantum physics why are they so useless to us? Because we don't attempt to resolve issues but would rather batter them out of existence! The non-renewable versus sustainable resource base issue (it's rarely a "debate"), shows this far too clearly.
 Take for instance the "Burj Al Arab"; situated on an island in The Arabian Gulf this "magnificent" piece of British engineering offers the "ultimate" in luxury accommodation for its' Seven (?), Star guests; fountains, spas, a helicopter pad (which also doubles -?-, as a tennis court), the usual luxury restaurants and a fully integrated communications and entertainment system replete with the latest "connective" technologies. What however do all these systems rely on to produce the vast amounts of energy consumed by the establishment? Oil of-course (and what easy words those are!). Blessed with a virtually unlimited solar profile, whipped by winds which have meant that the hotel has been designed to resist stresses to it's structure which are unknown inland and with it's foundations upon a honey-combed "island" constructed of open hexagonal blocks designed to allow the waves and tides to harmlessly pass through its' base all of which could be utilised to power the buildings systems Tom Wright (the British architect responsible), chose to eschew such irrelevances and design a building which glorifies the massive consumption of our non-renewable resources.








..one is therefore lead to the conclusion that the building is not in harmony with it's environment, as witnessed by the fact that it's construction coincided with the recent crash in the stock markets (which -again-, of-course had nothing to do with the rapid disappearance of our non-renewable resources!).




The Channel Tunnel has similar problems but it's problems go deeper, I was given to understand at the time that certain ancient sites ("A.S.A.R.U" - "Areas of Significant Ancient Religious Use"-, see: "What's that Coming Over the Hill?"), were disturbed if not destroyed around Dover during the initial phase of The Tunnel's construction (I haven't been able to locate any reference to this online if anyone does have any information regarding the matter please Tweet "Abaris" @ Williamtheb or post a comment here), and as referred to in my previous post on this blog eight British and two French construction workers were killed during the construction of  "The Thatcher/MacGregor Tunnel".  
 My research leads me to be believe that a bridge is the only viable solution to The Channel crossing issue!

Tuesday, 10 June 2014

"Was a Dangerous Eurotunnel "Pensioned Off" (and if so by whom)?" (Update: British Govt. touts rail service)

Quote: "November 5, 2010 12:48 pm

Canadian funds pay £2.1bn for Channel tunnel link

Two Canadian pension funds are to pay a higher-than-expected £2.1bn for the right to run the UK’s only dedicated high-speed rail line, in the first significant privatisation of the new coalition government.
Philip Hammond, transport secretary, described the sale of a 30-year concession for High Speed One to Borealis Infrastructure and the Ontario Teachers’ Pension Plan, announced on Friday, as “great news for taxpayers and rail passengers alike”.

The price comfortably exceeds the £1.5bn London & Continental Railways, the state-owned owner of the 110km link, had been expecting to raise from the sale.
The sale was “a big vote of confidence in UK plc and a big vote of market confidence in the future of high speed rail”, Mr Hammond said.
“It also shows that the decisive action this government has taken to reduce the deficit is already paying dividends and that investors believe once again that Britain is open for business,” he went on.
The Borealis consortium defeated a consortium of Eurotunnel, the Channel tunnel operator, and Goldman Sachs; a consortium led by Germany’s Allianz and a group led by Morgan Stanley to win the competition, launched in June. Borealis is the infrastructure arm of Omers Worldwide, one of Canada’s largest pension funds.
“The £2.1bn receipt exceeds the highest expectations for the sale and will make a welcome contribution to reducing the deficit,” Mr Hammond said.
The generous valuation of the line is reminiscent of the infrastructure deals at the height of the sector’s boom before the financial crisis, when funds paid unprecedented valuations for toll roads, container ports and airports.
The sale brings to an end a story of government involvement in the link that dates back to 1998, when the Department for Transport stepped in to guarantee £3.75bn of LCR’s debt as the then-private company struggled to fund the line’s £5.6bn construction costs. It guaranteed future payments from operation of the domestic high-speed services to Kent that were launched in December. The guaranteed future revenues were a significant attraction for bidders, according to people involved in the transaction.
A consortium led by Sir Adrian Montague, the former treasury official, tried to launch a bid for LCR in 2006 but was eventually rebuffed by the then Labour government.
The HS1 sale is the first phase of a restructuring and privatisation of LCR that has been planned since 2006. The company’s substantial property holdings around London’s St Pancras station, at Stratford and at Ebbsfleet in Kent are all expected to be gradually sold off as market conditions allow. The Department for Transport is likely to retain LCR’s other asset – its minority stake in Eurostar, the only existing international train operator from St Pancras – for the foreseeable future.
Germany’s Deutsche Bahn last month for the first time ran a continental-sized high-speed train to St Pancras along HS1 in preparation for introducing international competition on the route for the first time from 2013.
The government announcement gave no precise date for the line’s handover. UBS advised LCR on the sale, while Citi advised the DfT." Go to http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/be77b8d4-e8cc-11df-a383-00144feab49a.html#axzz34F7WsF2F

Quote: ""Recently, an earthquake occurred along the English Channel
coast, with its epicentre at Folkestone in Kent, at
8.28 a.m. (local time) on 28 April 2007. The local earthquake
magnitude was estimated by the British Geological Survey
as 4.2ML (Walker and Musson, 2007) and no discernible
affect was reported on the sea. However, worryingly, a local
news outlet reported that coastal residents on feeling the
tremor “started rushing out from their houses and on to the
beach for safety” (Kent News, 2007)! This highlights the
need to assess the threat from tsunami and associated hazards
in Britain and, if appropriate, raise public awareness of
the potential hazards."

from http://dyscovery.newport.ac.uk/

According to "The Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences Organisation" (go to.... http://www.nat-hazards-earth-syst-sci.net/8/587/2008/nhess-8-587-2008.pdf ), siesmic events either in or on either side of The Channel are historically far from rare! " Go to http://gkhales.blogspot.co.uk/2012/02/has-integrity-of-channel-tunnel-always.html

Geological profile of The Tunnel marked with black line (by self), to indicate possible greatest point of weakness and stress.

Quote: "Geology


Geological profile along the tunnel as constructed. For most of its length the tunnel bores through a chalk marl stratum (layer)*
Successful tunnelling required a sound understanding of the topography and geology and the selection of the best rock strata through which to tunnel. The geology generally consists of northeasterly dipping Cretaceous strata, part of the northern limb of the Wealden-Boulonnais dome. Characteristics include:
  • Continuous chalk on the cliffs on either side of the Channel containing no major faulting, as observed by Verstegan in 1698
  • Four geological strata, marine sediments laid down 90–100 million years ago; pervious upper and middle chalk above slightly pervious lower chalk and finally impermeable Gault Clay. A sandy stratum, glauconitic marl (tortia), is in between the chalk marl and gault clay
  • A 25–30-metre (82–98 ft) layer of chalk marl (French: craie bleue) in the lower third of the lower chalk appeared to present the best tunnelling medium. The chalk has a clay content of 30–40% providing impermeability to groundwater yet relatively easy excavation with strength allowing minimal support. Ideally the tunnel would be bored in the bottom 15 metres (49 ft) of the chalk marl, allowing water inflow from fractures and joints to be minimised, but above the gault clay that would increase stress on the tunnel lining and swell and soften when wet.[46]
On the English side, the strata dip is less than 5°; on the French side this increases to 20°. Jointing and faulting are present on both sides. On the English side, only minor faults of displacement less than 2 metres (7 ft) exist; on the French side, displacements of up to 15 metres (49 ft) are present owing to the Quenocs anticlinal fold. The faults are of limited width, filled with calcite, pyrite and remoulded clay. The increased dip and faulting restricted the selection of route on the French side. To avoid confusion, microfossil assemblages were used to classify the chalk marl. On the French side, particularly near the coast, the chalk was harder, more brittle and more fractured than on the English side. This led to the adoption of different tunnelling techniques on the two sides.[47]
The Quaternary undersea valley Fosse Dangaered, and Castle Hill landslip at the English portal, caused concerns. Identified by the 1964–65 geophysical survey, the Fosse Dangaered is an infilled valley system extending 80 metres (262 ft) below the seabed, 500 metres (1,640 ft) south of the tunnel route in mid-channel. A 1986 survey showed that a tributary crossed the path of the tunnel, and so the tunnel route was made as far north and deep as possible. The English terminal had to be located in the Castle Hill landslip, which consists of displaced and tipping blocks of lower chalk, glauconitic marl and gault debris. Thus the area was stabilised by buttressing and inserting drainage adits.[47] The service tunnel acted as a pilot tunnel preceding the main tunnels, so that the geology, areas of crushed rock, and zones of high water inflow could be predicted. Exploratory probing took place in the service tunnel, in the form of extensive forward probing, vertical downward probes and sideways probing.[47]

Surveying

Marine soundings and samplings by Thomé de Gamond were carried out during 1833–67, establishing the seabed depth at a maximum of 55 metres (180 ft) and the continuity of geological strata (layers). Surveying continued over many years, with 166 marine and 70 land-deep boreholes being drilled and over 4,000-line-kilometres of marine geophysical survey completed.[48] Surveys were undertaken in 1958–1959, 1964–1965, 1972–1974 and 1986–1988.
The surveying in 1958–59 catered for immersed tube and bridge designs as well as a bored tunnel, and thus a wide area was investigated. At this time marine geophysics surveying for engineering projects was in its infancy, with poor positioning and resolution from seismic profiling. The 1964–65 surveys concentrated on a northerly route that left the English coast at Dover harbour; using 70 boreholes, an area of deeply weathered rock with high permeability was located just south of Dover harbour.[48]
Given the previous survey results and access constraints, a more southerly route was investigated in the 1972–73 survey and the route was confirmed to be feasible. Information for the tunnelling project also came from work before the 1975 cancellation. On the French side at Sangatte a deep shaft with adits was made. On the English side at Shakespeare Cliff, the government allowed 250 metres (820 ft) of 4.5-metre (15 ft) diameter tunnel to be driven. The actual tunnel alignment, method of excavation and support were essentially the same as the 1975 attempt. In the 1986–87 survey, previous findings were reinforced and the nature of the gault clay and the tunnelling medium (chalk marl that made up 85% of the route) were investigated. **Geophysical techniques from the oil industry were employed.[48]"
Go to: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Channel_Tunnel

* Italics and bold text mine Ed. Also see: "What's that Coming Over the Hill?" esp. re: "Twyford Down" Go to: http://gkhales.blogspot.co.uk/2012/06/whats-that-coming-over-hill.html
**Bold mine Ed.

 With Apologies
I should have backed up my files properly on this subject ("naive much?"), unfortunately The MediaLens Forum on which my initial posts on this subject were recorded is undergoing maintenance at this time and a link to a 2010 geological survey of The Tunnel which was available for purchase from one of the institutes (sorry I don't remember which one -although I know it is not The British Geological Survey, although I will approach them in order to locate the source-), appears to have dis-appeared. Paranoid? Possibly, if anyone else knows where to find it please tweet it to me or post a comment here.

Quote: "Turkey’s New Undersea Tunnel Is Built to Resist Earthquakes

How engineers made a train tunnel that connects two continents


When designing the tunnel, engineers had to take into account its proximity to the active North Anatolian Fault, which lies about 10 miles (16 kilometers) away. Activity along this 930-mile (1,500-kilometer) fault system resulted in a devastating 7.4 magnitude earthquake that struck Turkey in 1999, killing tens of thousands of people.
"The earthquake hazard really drove the design of the project," said Joseph Wartman, a civil engineering professor at the University of Washington in Seattle who was not involved with the project but has studied its progress due to his work on earthquake-resistant design. The tunnel's engineers had to account for the possibility of earthquakes of magnitudes as large as 7.5, he said. "It's about as challenging as it gets for tunnel design."
Earthquake safety determined the sizing of the tunnel and a lot of the design details, Wartman said. "This project really posed some significant challenges to the designers. It's really pushing the boundaries of underground construction in a seismically active area."
Although earthquakes can cause a lot of shaking, that's not as much of a concern with underground tunnels, Wartman said. "They're actually some of the safest places to be, because the level of shaking is lower below the ground compared to the surface." He explained that this is due to the mechanics by which the seismic waves propagate across the ground.
"It may not be particularly intuitive that something deep is actually safer, but that's the case in this situation," he said.
Turning Solid Ground Into Liquid
The real concern during an earthquake is a phenomenon known as liquefaction, which can temporarily soften the soil surrounding the tunnel, effectively turning that soil into a liquid, Wartman said. "The soil is no longer supporting the tunnel, it's trying to dislodge it, and it can actually cause tunnels to float up," he said.
"We have seen many cases where below-ground structures such as gasoline tanks float up to the surface in an earthquake."
Jonathan Stewart, a civil engineering professor at the University of California, Los Angeles also pointed to liquefaction as a major concern for the Marmaray project, especially given the massive liquefaction observed during the 1999 earthquake in Turkey. "That's probably the single biggest threat," said Stewart, who was not involved with the tunnel's design.
Stewart noted that the North Anatolian Fault is similar to the San Andreas Fault in California and said similar concerns had to be addressed when building the Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) tunnel under the San Francisco Bay.
But despite similarities with California, the tunnel in Turkey was far more complicated, said Wartman. "What's unique about this project is that it has an extreme liquefaction hazard, much higher than, for example, the tube that runs for the BART system under the San Francisco Bay." That's a result of the type of soil present and the severity of the earthquakes that hit the region, he said.
To prevent liquefaction, engineers had to make the soil around the tunnel more dense*, Wartman said. They did this by drilling holes into the soil adjacent to the tunnel and injecting grout under high pressure. "Grout is just concrete without the sand, like a slurry, and as it enters the soil it will make it denser," he said, explaining that close to 3,000 grout columns were injected around the tunnel.
"It had seemed like an almost insurmountable problem, but I think this is a pretty effective mitigation measure," he said.
All About Flexibility
Long underwater tunnels are usually built in preconstructed segments that are then connected with joints, said UCLA's Stewart. The joints need to have enough flexibility that they won't rupture during an earthquake, he said.
"If you build the tube as a continuous piece, the deformation can be too large for the structure to accommodate, and you can end up with fractures that result in leakage," said Jack Moehle, an engineering professor at the University of California, Berkeley, who has spent several years working on the underwater BART tunnel. "So you build it in segments, and you make sure that each segment is connected by a flexible joint, so that the deformations can be accommodated."
The Marmaray tunnel was constructed from 11 sections that were connected with joints.
Underwater construction faces other hazards from earthquakes, Moehle said. "If the ground is shaking, that can unleash an underwater landslide," he said, adding that how much of a concern that is depends on the local geology.
Unforeseen Details and Surface Worries
The Marmaray tunnel engineers had taken a lot of care to account for earthquake-related issues in their design, said Wartman. "Based on what we've seen in past earthquakes, I would think it's a quite safe design," he said.
But Wartman cautioned that any large project could always have complications. "That would probably be the biggest concern here, that there are unforeseen details providing some trouble," he said.
"We as engineers try to think through all of these worst-case scenarios, but there's probably a countless variety of these details that go into every large project."
The real concern may not be with the underwater tunnel itself, but instead with the above-ground city, said UCLA's Stewart. Although the 1999 earthquake was devastating, the brunt of it was borne by areas farther away from Istanbul, he said. "Because of the fact that the fault just south of Istanbul did not rupture then, it's probably under a considerable amount of stress now, and Istanbul is one of the more at-risk cities in the world for earthquakes," Stewart said.
"We know that the fault is primed and ready to go, and there's a lot of very vulnerable buildings there," he said. "There's a potential for a real catastrophe," and if an actual earthquake happens, the tunnel could well be one of the safest places in the city, he said." Go to:
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2013/11/131104-earthquake-proof-marmaray-tunnel-turkey-engineering/

*Bold text mine Ed. Could liquifaction (or similar "non-impactive" stress), be a problem with regard to The Eurotunnel's structure?

Suspended Tunnelling
Quote: "The concept of submerged floating tunnels is based on well-known technology applied to floating bridges and offshore structures, but the construction is mostly similar to that of immersed tunnels: One way is to build the tube in sections in a dry dock; then float these to the construction site and sink them into place, while sealed; and, when the sections are fixed to each other, the seals are broken. Another possibility is to build the sections unsealed, and after welding them together, pump the water out.
The ballast used is calculated so that the structure has approximate hydrostatic equilibrium (that is, the tunnel is roughly the same overall density as water), whereas immersed tube tunnels are ballasted more to weight them down to the sea bed. This, of course, means that a submerged floating tunnel must be anchored to the ground or to the water surface to keep it in place (which of these depends on which side of the equilibrium point the tunnel is).

Applications


Water-spanning structures: 1: Suspension bridge 2: Submerged floating tunnel 3: Immersed tube 4: Undersea tunnel
Submerged floating tubes allow construction of a tunnel in extremely deep water, where conventional bridges or tunnels are technically difficult or prohibitively expensive. They would be able to deal with seismic disturbances and weather events easily (as they have some degree of freedom in regards to movement), and their structural performance is independent of length (that is, it can be very long without compromising its stability and resistance).
On the other hand, they may be vulnerable in regards to anchors or submarine traffic, which therefore has to be taken in consideration when building one.
Likely applications include fjords, deep, narrow sea channels, and deep lakes.[3]"
Go to  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Submerged_floating_tunnel

What concerns me greatly is that at the same time as The Oil Industry's baby was (possibly), pensioned off in 2010 the geological report which was produced ( "pay-per-view" only), appears to have vanished.

Quote: "Channel tunnel
Ten workers died during the construction of the Channel tunnel between 1987 and 1993, most of them in the first few months during the boring of the tunnel. The Channel tunnel was a joint venture between British and French construction firms. The vast majority of the work was carried out by the British, and eight out of the 10 dead were British workers." Go to http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/thirteen-workers-die-as-safety-standards-are-ignored-in-race-to-build-olympic-sites-558698.html


I have now located a link to the British Geological Society's report on a prev. thread (I was unable to locate it via any current search engine), the report is still "pay-per-view" only but you will note that it was first published in 1997. I was given to understand that an update had indeed been undertaken, I shall check with the BGS....Go to: http://egsp.lyellcollection.org/content/12/1/327.full.pdf
  
"Eurostar rail stake touted for sale by UK government"

 go to: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-29588412

Winchester earthquake: Tremor felt in Hampshire

Quote; "An earthquake with a magnitude of 2.9 has been recorded in Hampshire, the British Geological Survey has confirmed.
Postings on social media reported buildings in the Winchester area shaking following a tremor shortly after 18:30 GMT.
A police spokeswoman said no injuries or serious damage had been reported.
Matthew Emery, from South Wonston, near Winchester described the experience as "almost as if Concorde had flown over".
The British Geological Survey (Bgs) reported a tremor at a depth of 3km (1.9miles) at Headbourne Worthy, just north east of Winchester.
BGS Seismologist David Galloway said the UK experienced about 10 quakes of such a size each year which were "usually quite widely felt around the area"..
""the whole bed was visibly shaking" as well as one who said the earthquake sounded "like a bus" crashing "into the neighbours house at speed".
Hampshire Constabulary said it had initially received lots of calls from concerned residents in the Kingsworthy area following reports of something which "felt like an explosion which shook their houses".
Residents also took to social media to describe what happened.
Rowland Rees tweeted: "Quake felt in Crawley, Winchester. Whole house shook for a few seconds!"
And Jen Gupta said in a tweet: "Our house in Winchester just shook enough to rattle glasses in the cupboard, accompanied by a boom sound."
Rachel Cristofoli, in Kings Worthy, said: "Everyone felt it and came outside to see what was going on. It lasted about 5 seconds, but the houses all shook from top to bottom."
Brook Ethridge, barmaid at the South Wonston Social Club, said: "About half past six, I was sitting reading my book and all the glasses started shaking. It sounded like someone had driven into the back of the club."
Go to: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-hampshire-31009707
For full article.